Typology of smallholder’s pig production systems in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: Challenges and opportunities

Yannick Mugumaarhahama, Valence Bwana Mutwedu, Léonard Muzee Kazamwali, Arsène Ciza Mushagalusa, Fabrice Kwankanaba Bantuzeko, Serge Shakanye Ndjadi, Adrien Byamungu Ndeko, Nadège Cizungu Cirezi, Pascaline Ciza Azine, Rodrigue Basengere-Balthazar Ayagirwe


Pig farming plays an important role in farmers’ livelihoods in many tropical countries. It contributes to food security of the poorest as well as the development of rural economy through multiplier effects. In the South Kivu province, pig farms are almost exclusively owned by smallholders. A few studies have attempted to describe thoroughly pig farming systems in this province. This study was undertaken to characterise pig production systems, in order to better understand their current situation, namely constraints they face and opportunities they offer. Investigation was conducted based on a structured survey questionnaire and participatory interviews with the owners of 989 farms in South-Kivu. Collected data was analysed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis and clustering techniques. Results showed that there are two types of smallholder pig farms differing mainly in the type of husbandry and feeding management. One category includes farms that raise pigs in free-range system consuming forages and scavenge feed (heaps picked-up from garbage and trash on their ways), which are sometimes, combined with crop residues and kitchen leftovers. The second category includes improved pig farms raising tethered pigs or in lairage where feed is mostly based on forages combined with kitchen leftovers, crop residues and concentrate feed. Nevertheless, all these different farm types share many common characteristics, including having pigs of local breeds, small herd sizes, absence of breeding boars and absence of adequate prophylactic measures. It emerged that female farmers together with experienced farmers mainly own pig farms with better characteristics (breed type, management practices, litter size, etc.). Hence, the involvement of women in pig farming can offer better prospects for the improvement of this sector. In addition, access to agricultural credit can also be an alternative to foster investment in livestock in South Kivu. All this can only lead to better results though improved local market access to smallholder producers.


Breeding practices, feeding strategies, hierarchical clustering on principal components, multiple correspondence analysis, pig farming systems

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17170/kobra-202005281301

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