Development and Implementation of Integrated Pest management to Programs of Apple Trees in Reclaimed Lands in Egypt: I - The Fig Scale Insect (FSI), Russellaspis (Asterolecanium) pustulans (Cockerell)

Asharaf Abd El-Salam, Hendy Mangoud


The fig scale insect (FSI). Russellaspis (Asterolecanium) pustulans (Cockerell)
(Homoptera : Asterolecanidae) is a serious pest of apple trees, "Pyrus malus (Mill)" in new reclaimed lands in Egypt. Both nymphs and adult females were found on apple trees all over the year. The distribution studies of the FSI on various parts of apple trees were carried out in a private farm located in El-Mansoria Center at El-Giza Governorate in Egypt. The distribution studies is equally important, particularly when oriented spraying are practiced. The data showed that 51,6 and 46.6% of adults and nymphs stages respectively of the FSI were concentrated on trunks, while, 48.4 and 53.4% respectively were distributed between main branches, new branches and new leaf petioles. The same trend was observed with the distribution of parasites. The FSI population was concentrated in the direction of water pipe in new reclaimed lands. Two methods were carried out to control this pest: the whole tree spraying and the oriented spraying. In the whole tree spraying, the whole tree was sprayed. About 7 liters of pesticide solution at winter time (after pruning) and 15 liters at summer time (before pruning). In the oriented spraying (spraying of infested branches), about 2.5 liter at winter time (after pruning) and 6 liters at summer time (before pruning) spraying solution per tree were sufficient to coyer the infested branches. Both spraying methods (oriented and whole tree spraying) gave complete protection for 5 months (in winter) and 4 months (in summer) after which, reinfestation was observed.
The whole tree spraying were the more expensive variants (235 and 162 LE/feddan) while the oriented spraying variants (106 and 71 LE/feddan) were relatively safe to the environment and also gave good reduction against the FSI pest and is very important in
integrated Pest Management (lPM) methods.

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